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Evidence based Scientific Narrative Review on the Anticoagulant Mechanisms of Allium sativum (Garlic)

Authors:

M. N. F. Z. Hareera,

University of Sri Jayewardenepura, LK
About M. N. F. Z.
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences
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G. U. S. Wijesekara ,

University of Sri Jayewardenepura, LK
About G. U. S.
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences
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E. M. S. Bandara

University of Sri Jayewardenepura, LK
About E. M. S.
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences
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Abstract

Introduction: Garlic (Allium sativum, Family: Amaryllidaceae) is a seasoning plant cultivated all over the world. Garlic contains a lot of bioactive compounds including organosulfur compounds, saponins, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides. Anticoagulant activity is one of the pharmacological properties of Garlic. The aim of this study was to review the mechanism of the anticoagulant activity of garlic and summarise the potential evidence about the anticoagulant activity of garlic from past studies.

 

Method: Literature searches were conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar databases. 44 full articles were reviewed in detail in this study. The findings were reviewed and potential evidence for the anticoagulant mechanisms of garlic was summarised.

 

Results: Organosulfur compounds in garlic play a major role in the anticoagulant property of garlic. Garlic exhibits anticoagulant activity mainly through three mechanisms. Those are inhibiting platelet aggregation, retarding thrombin formation, and promoting fibrinolysis. The anticoagulant activity of garlic is proven by several human, animal and in-vitro studies. Garlic significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Garlic administration inhibit the thrombus formation in rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of garlic prolong prothrombin time. Extension in clotting time is reported with increasing concentrations of garlic extract.

 

Conclusions: Garlic has been reported as a medicinal plant showing anticoagulant activity by resisting platelet aggregation, inhibiting thrombin formation and enhancing fibrinolysis and this study suggests that garlic reduces the risk of thrombosis therefore cardiovascular complications.
How to Cite: Hareera MNFZ, Wijesekara GUS, Bandara EMS. Evidence based Scientific Narrative Review on the Anticoagulant Mechanisms of Allium sativum (Garlic). Journal of Health Sciences and Innovative Research. 2022;3(2):35–44.
Published on 31 Dec 2022.
Peer Reviewed

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